On 16 and 17 March 1988, Iraqi government airplanes, under the command of Saddam Hussein, dropped chemical weapons on the town of Halabja. Approximately 5,000 civilians, including women and children, were killed. The horrific tragedy of Halabja was part of the genocidal Anfal campaign against Kurdistan’s civilians, which included mass summary executions and disappearances and widespread use of chemical weapons. The Anfal campaign also saw the destruction of some 2,000 villages and of the rural economy and infrastructure. An estimated 180,000 Iraqi Kurds were killed in the campaign between 1987-1989.
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This is his original report for the BBC One O’Clock News from March 1988. This video contains disturbing images.
Twenty five years ago thousands of people died in the Kurdish town of Halabja when Saddam Hussein authorised an attack there with chemical gas.
To this day parts of the town remain contaminated by lethal toxic gases. Kurdish authorities who govern the area are trying to establish that the attack was an act of genocide. This video contains disturbing images.
Study dated July 1993.
The BBC’s foreign affairs editor John Simpson returns to Kurdistan nearly 25 years after the world’s worst-ever chemical weapons attack on civilians. A British forensics company now believes it can help by identifying the precise chemicals used and the European companies suspected of supplying them
A digital memorial created to keep the new generation aware of Halabja.
This book tells the story of the gassing of Halabja, and how Iraq amassed chemical weapons to target Iranian soldiers and Kurdish villagers as America looked the other way. Today, as the Middle East sinks further into turmoil, these policies are coming back to haunt the West.
This book tells of the unspeakable atrocities visited by Saddam Hussein upon the Kurds of Iraq, together with the trials of Saddam by the Iraqi High Tribunal. However, this work is more than a litigation history. It is also an exploration of the motivations behind and the depths of organized evil in the context of a single, brutal despot.